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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk

Faqir Muhammad1*, Mian Muhammad Awais2, Masood Akhtar3 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan

2 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang, Sub campus University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

3 Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan

4 Poultry Research Institute, Office of Deputy District Livestock Officer (Poultry), Faisalabad, Pakistan

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Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering 2013, 10:4  doi:10.1186/1735-2746-10-4

Published: 4 January 2013


The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

Goat milk; Pesticides; Residues; QSAR model